Zinc Chromium

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Mighty supplement duo slashes diabetes damage 18%

Keeping your blood sugar under control is no picnic — in fact, if you’ve been dealing with type 2 diabetes, I’m guessing your favorite picnic foods have been off the menu for some time.

  1. Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism.
  2. Chromium, zinc, and magnesium are involved in insulin signaling and how the body deals with sugar. They promote helpful defense against adverse oxidation, for.
  3. Jun 20, 2005 Many of the heavy metals, such as zinc, copper, chromium, iron and manganese, are essential to body function in very small amounts. But, if these metals accumulate in the body in concentrations sufficient to cause poisoning, then serious damage may occur.

Chromium, as trivalent (+3) chromium, is a trace element that is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement. Chromium also exists as hexavalent (+6) chromium, a toxic by-product of stainless steel and other manufacturing processes 1,2. This fact sheet focuses entirely on trivalent chromium. There is limited knowledge about the dietary needs for chromium, the amount of chromium found in foods, and the chromium status of athletes and the general public. We do know, however, that because excess chromium interacts with iron and zinc, you should keep.

The fact is, diabetes is more than a mealtime nuisance. It’s a deadly wrecking ball that unleashes oxidative stress on your heart and other major organs, often causing permanent and lethal damage. According to the American Diabetes Association, two out of three diabetic patients eventually die of heart disease or stroke.

Chromium

If you’re worried about the damage diabetes is doing to your body right now — and you should be — a new study out of Maryland is going to be sweet music to your ears. That’s because researchers say they have discovered two powerful supplements that could slash the damage diabetes is causing to your organs by a whopping 18%.

Here’s the deal. A research team led by Dr. Richard Anderson of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center offered zinc and chromium supplements — and a combination of the two — to a group of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes.

What they found was nothing short of amazing. Zinc and chromium worked like powerful shields protecting your vital organs from the oxidative stress caused by diabetes. Patients who took either zinc or chromium saw their TBARS levels (that’s a major indicator of oxidative stress) decrease by 13.6%.

But when zinc and chromium were used together levels dropped an impressive 18%! That could mean 18% less damage to your heart… your brain… your arteries… and every other part of your body you’d like to keep intact as you age.

Of course, Dr. Wright has been preaching the value of zinc and chromium for years. A quality multivitamin may offer all the daily zinc and chromium you need, but some foods high in chromium include mushrooms, brewers yeast, and eggs. For a boost of zinc, give oysters or dark chocolate a try.

If you’re struggling to control your blood sugar, eating better may not be enough. Incorporate zinc and chromium into your daily regimen, and you could build a fortress around your organs that keeps them free from oxidative stress caused by diabetes.

Chromium and zinc aren’t the only age fighters you should keep in your anti-aging arsenal. One 14th century text could hold the key to turning back the clock on Father Time. You can learn more about this amazing discovery from our friends and affiliates at the Health Sciences Institute by clicking here.

Sources:

Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Complications: (circres.ahajournals.org)

Zinc chromate conversion coating on small steel parts.

Chromate conversion coating or alodine coating is a type of conversion coating used to passivatesteel, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, copper, silver, titanium, magnesium, and tin alloys.[1]:p.1265[2] The coating serves as a corrosion inhibitor, as a primer to improve the adherence of paints and adhesives,[2] as a decorative finish, or to preserve electrical conductivity. It also provides some resistance to abrasion and light chemical attack (e. g. from dirty fingers) on soft metals.[2]

Chromate conversion coatings are commonly applied to everyday items such as screws, hardware and tools. They usually impart a distinctively iridescent, greenish-yellow color to otherwise white or gray metals. The coating has a complex composition including chromiumsalts, and a complex structure.[2]

The process is sometimes called alodine coating, a term used specifically[2] in reference to the trademarked Alodine process of Henkel Surface Technologies.[3]

Process[edit]

Chromate conversion coatings are usually applied by immersing the part in a chemical bath until a film of the desired thickness has formed, then removing the part, rinsing it, and letting it dry. The process is usually carried out at room temperature, with a few minutes of immersion. Alternatively, the solution can be sprayed, or the part can be briefly dipped in the bath; in which case the coating reactions take place while the part is still wet.[2]

The coating is soft and gelatinous when first applied, but hardens and becomes hydrophobic as it dries out, typically in 24 hours or less.[2] Curing can be accelerated by heating up to 70 °C (158 °F), but higher temperature will gradually damage the coating on steel.

Bath composition[edit]

The composition of the bath varies greatly, depending on the material to be coated and the desired effect. Most bath formulas are proprietary.

The formulations typically contain hexavalent chromium compounds, such as chromates and dichromates.[4]

The widely used Cronak process for zinc and cadmium consists of 5–10 seconds of immersion in a room-temperature solution consisting of 182 g/Lsodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7 · 2H2O) and 6 mL/L concentrated sulfuric acid.[5]

Chemistry[edit]

The chromate coating process starts with a redox reaction between the hexavalent chromium and the metal.[2] In the case of aluminum, for example,

Cr6+
+ Al0Cr3+
+ Al3+

These ions react with hydroxide ions in the water to form hydroxides

Cr3+
+ 3 HO
Cr(OH)
3

Zinc Chromium Coating

Al3+
+ 3 HO
Al(OH)
3

Under appropriate conditions, these hydroxides will condense with elimination of water to form a colloidal sol of very small particles, that are deposited as a hydrogel on the metal's surface. The gel consists of a three-dimensional solid skeleton of oxides and hydroxides, with nanoscale elements and voids, enclosing a liquid phase. The structure of the gel depends on metal ion concentration, pH, and other ingredients of the solution, such as chelating agents and counterions.[2]

The gel film contracts as it dries out, compressing the skeleton and causing it to stiffen. Eventually shrinkage stops, and further drying leaves the pores open but dry, turning the film into a xerogel. In the case of aluminum, the dry coating consists mostly chromium(III) oxide Cr
2
O
3
, or mixed (III)/(VI) oxide, with very little Al
2
O
3
. Typically the process variables are adjusted to give a dry coating that is 200-300 nm thick.[2][6][7]

The coating contracts as it dries out, which causes it to crack into many microscopic scales, described as 'dried mud' pattern. However, the trapped solution keeps reacting with any metal that gets exposed in the cracks, so that the final coating is continuous and covers the entire surface.[2]

Although the main reactions turn most of the chromium(VI) anions (chromates and dichcromates) in the deposited gel into insoluble chromium(III) compounds, a small quantity of them remains un-reacted in the dried-out coating. For example, in the coating formed on aluminum by a commercial bath, about 23% of the chromium atoms were found to be Cr6+
, except in a region next to the metal. These chromium(VI) residues can migrate when the coating is wetted, and are believed to play a role in preventing corrosion in the finished part -- specifically, by restoring the coating in any new microscopic cracks where corrosion could start.[2][6][7]

Substrates[edit]

Zinc[edit]

Chromating is often performed on galvanized parts to make them more durable. The chromate coating acts as paint does, protecting the zinc from white corrosion, thus making the part considerably more durable, depending on the chromate layer's thickness.[8][9][10]

The protective effect of chromate coatings on zinc is indicated by color, progressing from clear/blue to yellow, gold, olive drab and black. Darker coatings generally provide more corrosion resistance.[11] However, the coating color can also be changed with dyes, so color is not a complete indicator of the process used.

ISO 4520 specifies chromate conversion coatings on electroplated zinc and cadmium coatings. ASTM B633 Type II and III specify zinc plating plus chromate conversion on iron and steel parts. Recent revisions of ASTM B633 defer to ASTM F1941 for zinc plating mechanical fasteners, like bolts, nuts, etc. 2019 is the current revision for ASTM B633 (superseded the revision from 2015), which raised required tensile thresholds when confronting hyrdogren embrittlement issues and addressed embrittlement concerns in a new appendix.

Aluminium and its alloys[edit]

For aluminum, the chromate conversion bath can be simply a solution of chromic acid. The process is rapid (1–5 min), requires a single ambient temperature process tank and associated rinse, and is relatively trouble free. [2]

Chromium Plus Zinc

As of 1995, Henkel's Alodine 1200s commercial formula for aluminum consisted of 50-60% chromic anhydrideCrO
3
, 20-30% potassium tetrafluoroborateKBF
4
, 10-15% potassium ferricyanideK
3
Fe(CN)
, 5-10% potassium hexafluorozirconateK
2
ZrF
6
, and 5-10% sodium fluorideNaF by weight. The formula was meant to be dissolved in water at the concentration of 9.0 g/L, giving a bath with pH = 1.5. It yielded a light gold color after 1 min, and a golden-brown film after 3 min. The average thickness ranged between 200 and 1000 nm.[6]

Iridite 14-2 is a chromate conversion bath for aluminum. Its ingredients include chromium(IV) oxide, barium nitrate, sodium silicofluoride and ferricyanide.[12] In the aluminum industry, the process is also called chemical film[13] or yellow iridite,[13] Commercial trademarked names include Iridite[13] and Bonderite[14] (formerly known as Alodine, or Alocrom in the UK).[15] The main standards for chromate conversion coating of aluminium are MIL-DTL-5541 in the US, and Def Stan 03/18 in the UK.

Magnesium[edit]

Zinc ChromiumChromium zinc and magnesium

Alodine may also refer to chromate-coating magnesium alloys.[3]

Steel[edit]

Steel and iron cannot be chromated directly. Steel plated with zinc or zinc-aluminum alloy may be chromated.[9][10] Chromating zinc plated steel does not enhance zinc's cathodic protection of the underlying steel from rust.[5]

Phosphate coatings[edit]

Chromate conversion coatings can be applied over the phosphate conversion coatings often used on ferrous substrates. The process is used to enhance the phosphate coating.[5]

Safety[edit]

Zinc Chromate Primer

Hexavalent chromium compounds have been the topic of intense workplace and public health concern for their carcinogenicity, and as a result have become highly regulated.[16]

In particular, concerns about the exposure of workers to chromates and dichromates while handling the immersion bath and the wet parts, as well as the small residues of those anions that remain trapped in the coating, have motivated the development of alternative commercial bath formulations that do not contain hexavalent chromium;[17] for instance, by replacing the chromates by trivalent chromium salts, which are considerably less toxic. However, these do not seem to provide the long-term corrosion protection of the traditional formula.[7]

In Europe, the RoHS and REACH Directives encourage elimination of hexavalent chromium in a broad range of industrial applications and products, including chromate conversion coating processes.

External links[edit]

  • Yellow and green chromating chemistry on aluminium

References[edit]

  1. ^K.H. Jürgen, Buschow, Robert W. Cahn, Merton C.Flemings, BernhardIlschner, Edward J. Kramer, and Subhash Mahajan (2001): Encyclopedia of Material - Science and Technology , Elsevier, Oxford, UK.
  2. ^ abcdefghijklmJoseph H Osborne (2001): 'Observations on chromate conversion coatings from a sol–gel perspective'. Progress in Organic Coatings, volume 41, issue 4, pages 280-286. doi:10.1016/S0300-9440(01)00143-6
  3. ^ abHenkel Alodine products home page, accessed 2009-03-27
  4. ^Robert Peter Frankenthal (2002): Corrosion Science: A Retrospective and Current Status in Honor of Robert P. Frankenthal Proceedings of an international symposium. ISBN9781566773355
  5. ^ abcEdwards, Joseph (1997). Coating and Surface Treatment Systems for Metals. Finishing Publications Ltd. and ASM International. pp. 66–71. ISBN0-904477-16-9.
  6. ^ abcF. W. Lytle, R. B. Greegor, G. L. Bibbins, K. Y. Blohowiak, R. E. Smith, and G. D. Tuss (1995): 'An investigation of the structure and chemistry of a chromium-conversion surface layer on aluminum'. Corrosion Science, volume 31, issue 3, pages 349-369. doi:10.1016/0010-938X(94)00101-B
  7. ^ abcJ. Zhao, L. Xia, A. Sehgal, D. Lu, R. L. McCreery, and G. S. Frankel (2001): 'Effects of chromate and chromate conversion coatings on corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024-T3'. Surface and Coatings Technology, volume 140, issue 1, pages 51-57. doi:10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01003-9
  8. ^M. P. Gigandet, J. Faucheu, and M. Tachez (1997): 'Formation of black chromate conversion coatings on pure and zinc alloy electrolytic deposits: role of the main constituents'. Surface and Coatings Technology, volume 89, issue 3, 1pages 285-291. doi:10.1016/S0257-8972(96)03013-7
  9. ^ abA. M. Rocco, Tania M. C. Nogueira, Renata A. Simão, and Wilma C. Lima (2004): 'Evaluation of chromate passivation and chromate conversion coating on 55% Al–Zn coated steel'. Surface and Coatings Technology, volume 179,iIssues 2–3, pages 135-144. doi:10.1016/S0257-8972(03)00847-8
  10. ^ abZ. L. Long, Y. C. Zhou, and L. Xiao (2003): 'Characterization of black chromate conversion coating on the electrodeposited zinc–iron alloy'. Applied Surface Science, volume 218, issues 1–4, pages 124-137. doi:10.1016/S0169-4332(03)00572-5
  11. ^Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T.; Kohser, Ronald A. (2003). Materials and Processes in Manufacturing (9th ed.). Wiley. p. 792. ISBN0-471-65653-4.
  12. ^MacDermid MSDS for Iridite 14-2, Product number 178659.
  13. ^ abchttp://www.engineersedge.com/iridite.htm
  14. ^'Aircraft Structures – Alodine Coating'(pdf). Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin (SAIB): HQ-18-09. FAA. February 5, 2018. Retrieved 2018-04-03.
  15. ^New surface treatment for aluminum. Anthony, J. Iron Age (1946), 158(23), 64-7.
  16. ^Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium, US Dept. of Labor, OSHA Federal Register # 71:10099-10385, 28 Feb 2006.
  17. ^http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/mtb/pdf/web-powdercoatarticleversion1.pdf
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