X Ray Exposure

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During the X-ray exposure, you remain still and hold your breath to avoid moving, which can cause the image to blur. HOW TO PREPARE FOR AN X-RAY This is achieved using computer-controlled, externally applied magnetic fields that govern the motion of the working tip of the catheter or guidewire, resulting in improved navigation, shorter procedure time and reduced x-ray exposure. Such estimates of cancer and genetically heritable risk from x-ray exposure have a broad range of statistical uncertainty, and there is some scientific controversy regarding the effects from very.

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The AP supine abdominal radiograph can be performed as a standalone projection or as part of an acute abdominal series, depending on the clinical question posed, local protocol and the availability of other imaging modalities.

  • Measure of the detector response to radiation in the relevant image region of an image acquired with a digital X-Ray imaging system as defined in IEC 62494-1. Note A string rather than binary Value Representation is used for this Attribute, in order to allow the sender to control the precision of the value as suggested in the report of AAPM.
  • 60-70 kVp; 10-18 mAs; SID. Yes (this can vary departmentally) Image technical evaluation. The entire clavicle is visualized alongside the glenoid cavity and scapula in the AP position; a slight overlap of the humeral head with the glenoid; no foreshortening of the scapular body (as per the patient rotation discussed in the positioning).
  • Your Current X-ray Risk Report Save Report Preview Report Estimated Lifetime Risk of Death from Various Sources13 Keep in mind, the overall lifetime risk of developing an invasive cancer is 37.5% (1 in 3) for women and 44.9% (1 in 2) for men regardless of imaging history.
Article:Images:

Indications

This view is useful in assessing abdominal pathologies, including bowel obstructions, calcifications and neoplastic changes. It is also used as a scout/baseline image for contrast studies of the abdomen (i.e. small bowel follow-through).

Patient position

  • the patient is supine, lying on his or her back, either on the x-ray table (preferred) or a trolley
  • patients should be changed into a hospital gown, with radiopaque items removed (e.g. belts, zippers, buttons)
  • the patient should be free from rotation; both shoulders and hips equidistant from the table/trolley
  • the x-ray is taken on full inspiration
    • this causes the diaphragm to contract, hence compressing the abdominal organs, allowing all abdominal contents to be visualised on a single image

Technical factors

  • AP projection
  • centring point
    • the midsagittal place (equidistant from each ASIS) at the level of the iliac crest
  • collimation
    • laterally to the lateral abdominal wall
    • superior to the diaphragm
    • inferior to the inferior pubic rami
  • orientation
    • portrait
  • detector size
    • 35 cm x 43 cm
  • exposure
    • 70-80 kVp
    • 30-120 mAs; AEC should be used if available
  • SID
    • 100 cm
  • grid
    • yes
Exposure

Image technical evaluation

  • if possible, the diaphragm should be included superiorly
  • the abdomen should be free from rotation with symmetry of the:
    • ribs (superior)
    • iliac crests (middle)
    • obturator foramen (inferior)
  • no blurring of the bowel gas due to respiratory motion

Practical points

For larger patients, it may be necessary to perform two x-rays using a landscape orientation of the detector to include the entire abdomen.

Exposure will need to be adjusted according to the imaging system (CR or DR) and patient size. Where possible, mAs should be manipulated to ensure adequate image density and appropriate image contrast.

  • 1. John Lampignano, Leslie E. Kendrick. Bontrager's Textbook of Radiographic Positioning and Related Anatomy. (2017) ISBN: 9780323399661

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      • acromioclavicular joint series
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      • sternoclavicular joint series
    • arm and forearm radiography
      • humerus series
      • elbow series
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    • wrist and hand radiography
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      • hand series
      • thumb series
      • fingers series
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  • lower limb radiography
    • pelvic girdle radiography
      • pelvis series
      • hip series
      • sacroiliac joint series
    • thigh and leg radiography
      • femur series
      • knee series
      • tibia/fibula series
    • ankle and foot radiography
      • ankle series
      • foot series
      • calcaneus series
      • toes series
  • skull radiography
  • paranasal sinuses and facial bones radiography
    • facial bones
    • nasal bones
    • zygomatic arches
    • orbits
    • paranasal sinuses
    • temporal bones
  • dental radiography
    • mandible
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  • spine radiography
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