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FortiGuard Labs Threat Research Report
Pastebin.com is the number one paste tool since 2002. Pastebin is a website where you can store text online for a set period of time. Malwarebytes Anti Malware Key Introduction: Malwarebytes AntiMalware 2017 is the most popular malware scanning and healing software. It heals all latest and old trojan in less time. The new version combines the functions of Anti-Malware Anti-Exploit Anti-Ransomware Web protection and cleansing and recovery of applied sciences in a single. Seriously, this is unknown malware, be careful!! Now that I've converted it back to a binary, I upload it to VirusTotal to see if we have a match: No surprise, we get overwhelming results on a malware positive. Now what's really interesting is that the filename is the paste name which tells me that someone is monitoring Pastebin for malware. While it is not uncommon to find malware or code on Pastebin, it is a surprise to find a dropper that downloads the payload from Pastebin on the fly.The payload has turned out to be a RAT with keylogger capabilities. Login to your Malwarebytes account to manage subscriptions (including upgrades and renewals), payments, and devices. You can also view orders and find quick links to support.
The FortiGuard Labs threat research team has been noticing for some time that Pastebin and similar services are being used by malware authors, sometimes to evade detection or to obscure their purposes. However, we had no idea how common this practice is or what sorts of malicious content might be stored there. To get to the bottom of this, I decided to scrape Pastebin myself to see what is going on.
What is Pastebin, and How Do Bad Actors Use It?
Tools like Pastebin can be used to share plain-text data over the internet with just a link. But not everyone uses this service in the same way or for innocent purposes. Malware authors, for example, often use Pastebin, or services like it, to store part of the malicious content from their malware, and then fetch it later from inside the malicious executable using the share link. A recent FortiGuard Labs blog on the Rocke coin mining malware shows one practical use case for this practice.
Malicious Uses for Pastebin
To take a closer look at this practice, and see how prevalent the misuse of this service is by cyber criminals, I decided to scrape all the pastes in Pastebin and process them for malicious content. At first, my goal was to look up malicious files, since Pastebin can be used as an evasion technique. However, what I discovered was a wide variety of malicious scripts, stolen credentials, encoded content, and malware. The result of this research, based on examining thousands of pastes, is as follows.
Base64 Encoded Content: Over 8,000 of these files fell into this category. Among them were obfuscated scripts, some hashes, and countless binary data. Surprisingly, I also found some ELF/PE executable files. Listed below is the MD5 hash of a few of these files and their status on VirusTotal.
A newly discovered worm and botnet named Gitpaste-12 lives on GitHub and also uses Pastebin to host malicious code.
The advanced malware comes equipped with reverse shell and crypto-mining capabilities and exploits over 12 known vulnerabilities, therefore the moniker.
Spreads via GitHub, attacks in 12 different ways
Gitpaste-12 was first detected by Juniper Threat Labs lurking on GitHub around October 15th.
However, commits reveal the malware has lived on GitHub since Jul 9th, 2020 until it was taken down on Oct 30th, 2020.
The worm attempts to crack passwords via brute-force and exploits known vulnerabilities on the systems it infects.
11 of these vulnerabilities are as follows, with the 12th one stemming from a Telnet brute force application used to spread Gitpaste-12:
|CVE-2017-14135||Webadmin plugin for opendreambox|
|CVE-2020-24217||HiSilicon based IPTV/H.264/H.265 video encoders|
|CVE-2014-8361||Miniigd SOAP service in Realtek SDK|
|CVE-2020-15893||UPnP in dlink routers|
|EDB-ID: 48225||Netlink GPON Router|
|EDB-ID: 40500||AVTECH IP Camera|
After the initial system compromise, Gitpaste-12 downloads a recursive script from a Pastebin URL which instructs the infected host to keep executing this very script every minute.
This is a way for the malware to keep updating itself from the Command and Control (C2) source which is merely a paste URL:
Further, the malware downloads the main shell script from GitHub.
The URL where the shell script had lived has since been taken down: https://raw.githubusercontent[.]com/cnmnmsl-001/-/master/shadu1
'The malware begins by preparing the environment. This means stripping the system of its defenses, including firewall rules, selinux, apparmor, as well as common attack prevention and monitoring software,' state Juniper Threat Labs researchers Alex Burt and Trevor Pott.
In fact, some of the commands and hostnames present in the script reveal Gitpaste-12 is designed to attack cloud computing infrastructure provided by Alibaba Cloud and Tencent.
Additionally, the botnet is equipped with a Monero (XMR) cryptocurrency miner.
But there's more: the worm spreads itself by targeting a list of randomly generated IP addresses within a subnet range.
'The Gitpaste-12 malware also contains a script that launches attacks against other machines, in an attempt to replicate and spread. It chooses a random /8 CIDR for attack and will try all addresses within that range,' state Juniper's researchers.
The researchers additionally noted some compromised systems had TCP ports 30004 and 30005 open for receiving commands via reverse shells.
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Gitpaste-12 has a low detection rate
Considering the recency of its discovery, some files associated with the Gitpaste-12 botnet have quite a low detection rate.
At the time of writing, BleepingComputer observed the hide.so payload which aids Gitpaste-12 in evading detection was itself undetectable by over 93% antivirus engines.
Similarly, the crypto miner configuration file and the shell script have not yet been flagged by any antivirus engine listed on VirusTotal, as observed by BleepingComputer:
Juniper's report on a sophisticated malware present on GitHub follows shortly after Octopus Scanner had been discovered infiltrating over 26 open-source GitHub projects.
And attacks leveraging the open-source ecosystem are only expected to grow further, given their ongoing development.
'There is evidence of test code for possible future modules, indicating ongoing development for this malware. For now, however, targets are Linux based x86 servers, as well as Linux ARM and MIPS based IoT devices,' stated the report released by Juniper Threat Labs.
Gitpaste-12 Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) as provided below, and Juniper's detailed research can be found in their report.
Pastebin Malwarebytes License Key 2020