Joshua Rifkin The Entertainer

Posted onby admin

Listen to The Entertainer by Joshua Rifkin, 15,716 Shazams. 22 April 1944, New York, New York, USA. A pianist, musicologist, arranger and conductor, Rifkin was instrumental in reviving interest in the important composer of ragtime music, Scott Joplin. During the 60s, Rifkin studied at the Juilliard School of Music, New York University, Gottingen Universit. Available with an Apple Music subscription. Scott Joplin: Piano Rags is a 1970 ragtime piano album, consisting of compositions by Scott Joplin played by Joshua Rifkin, on the Nonesuch Records label. The original album's cover states the name as Piano Rags by Scott Joplin, as contrasting the album's spine. The record is considered to have been the first to reintroduce the music of pianist and composer Joplin in the early 1970s.


Joshua Rifkin (born April 22, 1944 in New York) is an American conductor, keyboard player, and musicologist, currently a Professor of Music at Boston University.[1] As a performer he has recorded music by composers from Antoine Busnois to Silvestre Revueltas, and as a scholar has published research on composers from the Renaissance to the 20th century. He is famed among classical musicians and aficionados for his increasingly influential theory that most of Bach's choral works were sung with only one singer per choral line. Rifkin argued: 'So long as we define 'chorus' in the conventional modern sense, then Bach's chorus, with few exceptions, simply did not exist.'[2] He is best known by the general public, however, for having played a central role in the ragtime revival in the 1970s, with the three albums he recorded of Scott Joplin's works for Nonesuch Records.

Rifkin and Joplin[edit]

A 1901 edition of Joplin's work

Rifkin's Joplin albums (the first of which was Scott Joplin: Piano Rags in November 1970 on the classical label Nonesuch)[3]—which were presented as classical music recordings—were critically acclaimed, commercially successful and led to other artists exploring the ragtime genre. It sold 100,000 copies in its first year and eventually became Nonesuch's first million-selling record.[4] The Billboard 'Best-Selling Classical LPs' chart for September 28, 1974 has the record at No. 5, with the follow-up 'Volume 2' at No. 4, and a combined set of both volumes at No. 3. Separately both volumes had been on the chart for 64 weeks.[5] The album was nominated in 1971 for two Grammy Award categories: Best Album Notes and Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra), but at the ceremony on March 14, 1972, Rifkin did not win in any category.[6]Rifkin's work as a revivalist of Joplin's work immediately preceded the adaptation of Joplin's music by Marvin Hamlisch for the film The Sting (1973).[7] In 1979 Alan Rich in the New York Magazine wrote that by giving artists like Rifkin the opportunity to put Joplin's music on record Nonesuch Records 'created, almost alone, the Scott Joplin revival.'[8]

In August 1990, Rifkin recorded a CD for the Decca label (catalog number 425 225) featuring rags by two of the other major composers of ragtime, Joseph Lamb and James Scott, and also tango compositions by the Brazilian composer Ernesto Nazareth.

Rifkin and Bach[edit]

Bach's vocal scoring[edit]

Rifkin is best known to classical musicians for his thesis that much of Johann Sebastian Bach's vocal music, including the St Matthew Passion, was performed with only one singer per voice part, an idea generally rejected by his peers when he first proposed it in 1981. In the twenty-first century the idea has become influential, despite still not achieving consensus in the field. The conductor Andrew Parrott wrote a book arguing for the position (The Essential Bach Choir; Boydell Press, 2000; as an appendix the book includes the original paper that Rifkin began to present to the American Musicological Society in 1981, a presentation he was unable to complete because of a strong audience reaction). Bach scholars as Daniel Melamed,[9] David Schulenberg[10] and John Butt[11] have argued in its favor.

Furthermore, Rifkin and Parrott are no longer the only notable conductors to adopt the approach in performance. Among the conductors and ensembles to record and perform music of Bach using some form of the vocal scoring argued for by Rifkin are John Butt with the Dunedin Consort (Magnificat, Cantata no. 63, Mass in B minor in Rifkin's critical edition of the work, discussed below, the St. John Passion, and St Matthew Passion), Konrad Junghänel (Mass in B minor, several cantatas, St. John Passion, and the motets), Sigiswald Kuijken (Mass in B minor, St. John Passion, St Matthew Passion, Christmas Oratorio, and the beginning of a cycle of the complete Bach cantatas), Paul McCreesh (St Matthew Passion, Magnificat, Easter Oratorio, and several cantatas), Monica Huggett (St. John Passion), Eric Milnes, who has begun recording the complete cantatas cycle with one singer per part, Marc Minkowski (Mass in B minor), Lars Ulrik Mortensen (Mass in B minor), Philippe Pierlot with the Ricercar Consort (Magnificat, masses and cantatas), Jeffrey Thomas (who has also often used multi-voice choirs), Jos van Veldhoven (Mass in B minor, St Matthew Passion), Matteo Messori (Christmas Oratorio, cantatas, motets), and Peter Kooy in the motets.

Rifkin himself has recorded Bach's Mass in B minor—his 1981 Nonesuch recording won the 1982–83 Gramophone Award in the Choral category—Magnificat, and cantatas nos. 8, 12, 51, 56, 78, 80, 82, 99, 106, 131, 140, 147, 158, 172, 182, 202, 209, 216, and others, for the Nonesuch, Mainach, L'Oiseau-lyre, and Dorian labels, all with his Bach Ensemble and various singers.

Other Bach scholarship[edit]

One of Rikfin's widely accepted findings, which he published in 1975, is that Bach's St Matthew Passion was first performed on Good Friday, 1727, not 1729 as was previously believed.[12] Rifkin's scholarly critical edition of Bach's Mass in B minor was published by Breitkopf and Härtel in November 2006. It is the first edition to follow strictly Bach's final version from 1748 to 1750, not intermixing readings from the 1733 Missa (the first version of the Kyrie and Gloria), and posits novel solutions to removing edits made posthumously by Bach's son C.P.E. Bach.

Rifkin has done extensive research on the orchestral suites of Bach, in particular arguing in detail that No. 2 in B minor, BWV 1067, is based on an earlier version in A minor in which the solo instrument was not the flute.[13] Rifkin has, further, created reconstructions of J.S. Bach's posited Oboe Concerti: for oboe, strings and continuo in D minor, from BWV 35, 156, 1056 and 1059; in A major for oboe d'amore, strings and continuo from BWV 1055; in E-flat major for oboe, strings and continuo from BWV 49, 169 and 1053. All the original movements are keyboard settings. They reflect the Baroque oboe idiom convincingly. In this form, they evince the influence of the Venetian school, notably Marcello, Corelli and Vivaldi.[14]

In a paper published in the Bach-Jahrbuch in 2000, Rifkin argued that the cantata Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft, BWV 50 was not written by Bach, but by an as-yet unidentified composer.[15]

Studies and career[edit]

Rifkin studied with Vincent Persichetti in the Music Division at the Juilliard School and received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1964. He also studied with Gustave Reese at New York University (1964–1966), at the University of Göttingen (1966–1967), and later with Arthur Mendel, Lewis Lockwood, Milton Babbitt, and Ernst Oster at Princeton University where he received his M.F.A. in 1969. He also worked with Karlheinz Stockhausen at Darmstadt in 1961 and 1965.

Rifkin has taught at several universities, including Brandeis University (1970–1982), Harvard, Yale, and is currently Professor of Music and Fellow of the University Professors at Boston University. He is noted for his research in the field of Renaissance and Baroque music: scholarship by Rifkin has examined the authorship and chronology of music attributed to Josquin des Prez; Renaissance music manuscripts; the motet around 1500; and music of Heinrich Schütz. He has also published research about Anton Webern.

As a conductor and keyboard soloist, he has appeared with the English Chamber Orchestra, San Francisco Symphony, St. Louis Symphony, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Victorian State Symphony, and Israel Camerata Jerusalem. He has led operatic productions at Theater Basel in Switzerland and the Bayerische Staatsoper, Munich. He has recorded music of Handel, Mozart, and Haydn with the Concertgebouw Chamber Orchestra and Capella Coloniensis. As a choral conductor he has recorded motets of Adrian Willaert with the Boston Camerata Chamber Singers, and music of the Medici Codex with the Dutch ensemble Capella Pratensis; that 2011 CD, titled Vivat Leo! Music for a Medici Pope, won a Diapason d'Or.[16] Among his works as a composer are the two Winter pieces for violin resp. piano both written in 1961. The Winter piece for violin was premiered by Paul Zukofsky in 1962.[17]

Work in non-classical music[edit]

In the 1960s, Rifkin created arrangements for Judy Collins on her albums In My Life and Wildflowers. He performed with the Even Dozen Jug Band (along with David Grisman, Maria Muldaur, Stefan Grossman, and John Sebastian, among others) and made a recording of his humorous re-imaginings of music by Lennon and McCartney in the style of the 18th century, notably Bach, known as The Baroque Beatles Book and recently reissued on CD. In a related vein, Rifkin sang the countertenor solo in the premiere performance of the spoof cantata Iphigenia in Brooklyn by P. D. Q. Bach (Peter Schickele).


  • Rifkin, Joshua (2002). Bach's Choral Ideal. Dortmunder Bach-Forschungen 5. Dortmund: Klangfarben Musikverlag. ISBN978-3-932676-10-9.
  • Rifkin, Joshua (November 1982). 'Bach's Chorus: A Preliminary Report'. The Musical Times. Musical Times Publications Ltd. 123 (1677): 747–54. doi:10.2307/961592. JSTOR961592.
  • Rifkin, Joshua (July 1975). 'The Chronology of Bach's Saint Matthew Passion'. The Musical Quarterly. 61 (3): 360–87. doi:10.1093/mq/LXI.3.360.
  • Rifkin, Joshua (2018). 'Siegesjubel und Satzfehler. Zum Problem von 'Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft' (BWV 50)'. Bach-Jahrbuch. 86: 67–86. doi:10.13141/bjb.v20001697.


  1. ^'Faculty Profile: Joshua Rifkin » Musicology & Ethnomusicology Boston University'. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
  2. ^Fenton, James (April 26, 2003). 'One for all'. The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
  3. ^'Scott Joplin Piano Rags Nonesuch Records CD (w/bonus tracks)'. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  4. ^'Nonesuch Records'. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  5. ^Billboard magazine 1974, p. 61.
  6. ^LA Times.
  7. ^Kronenberger, John. 'The Ragtime Revival-A Belated Ode to Composer Scott Joplin', New York Times, August 11, 1974
  8. ^Rich 1979.
  9. ^Daniel R. Melamed, Hearing Bach's Passions, Oxford University Press, 2005, Chapters 1 and 2, ISBN0-19-516933-6
  10. ^David Schulenberg, Music of the Baroque, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 192: ' appears increasingly likely that most of Bach's vocal works were composed for a 'chorus' comprising a single singer on each part. Orchestral parts, too, were rarely doubled, except for the violin and continuo lines. Thus what many modern listeners have come to regard as massive choral movements for large choir and orchestra are in fact examples of chamber music for vocal soloists and a small instrumental ensemble.'
  11. ^John Butt, Bach’s Dialogue with Modernity: Perspectives on the Passions, Cambridge University Press, 2010, Chapter 4, ISBN978-0-521-88356-6
  12. ^Joshua Rifkin, 'The Chronology of Bach's Saint Matthew Passion,' Musical Quarterly (61 (1975), pp. 360–87
  13. ^Joshua Rifkin, 'The B-Minor Flute Suite Deconstructed' in Gregory Butler (ed.), Bach Perspectives, nr 6: J. S. Bach's Concerted Ensemble Music, The Ouverture 2007: University of Illinois Press», pp. 1–98, ISBN978-0-252-03042-0
  14. ^Technical notes in the CD cover of Rifkin's own recording: Pro Arte digital CDD 153.
  15. ^Rifkin, Joshua (2000). 'Siegesjubel und Satzfehler. Zum Problem von 'Nun ist das Heil und die Kraft' (BWV 50)'. Bach-Jahrbuch 86: 67–86
  16. ^Vivat Leo! Music for a Medici Pope SACD Rifkin (Challenge) 2011
  17. ^'20th century violin concertante - Rifkin, Joshua'.


  • LA Times. 'Entertainment Awards Database'. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 17, 2009.
  • Billboard magazine (1974). 'Best Selling Classical LPs'. Billboard Magazine (September 28, 1974): 61. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  • Rich, Alan (1979). 'Music'. New York Magazine. New York Media LLC (December 24, 1979): 81. Retrieved August 5, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Parrott, Andrew (2000). The Essential Bach Choir. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. ISBN978-0-85115-786-3.

External links[edit]

  • 'Joshua Rifkin: Authentic at Heart' (interview from Ha'aretz)
  • 'Re-inventing Wheels: Joshua Rifkin on Interpretation and Rhetoric' (interview with Rifkin from Bernard Sherman's Inside Early Music)
  • 'Rifkin's Pesky Idea' (article by Bernard Sherman on the one-per-part controversy, originally published in Early Music America, Summer 1999, p. 48)
  • 'Schering's Wacky Theory' (Joshua Rifkin's response to Sherman's article, originally published in Early Music America, Fall 1999, p. 48)
  • 'Interview with Joshua Rifkin' by Uri Golomb, first published in Goldberg Early Music Magazine 51 (June 2008): 56–67
Retrieved from ''
The Entertainer
by Scott Joplin
PublisherJohn Stark & Son
DurationTypically 3:53

'The Entertainer' is a 1902 classic piano rag written by Scott Joplin.[1] It was sold first as sheet music, and in the 1910s as piano rolls that would play on player pianos.[1] The first recording was by blues and ragtime musicians the Blue Boys in 1928, played on mandolin and guitar.[1]

As one of the classics of ragtime, it returned to international prominence as part of the ragtime revival in the 1970s, when it was used as the theme music for the 1973 Oscar-winning film The Sting. Composer and pianist Marvin Hamlisch's adaptation reached #3 on the Billboardpop chart and spent a week at #1 on the easy listening chart in 1974.[2]The Sting was set in the 1930s, a full generation after the end of ragtime's mainstream popularity, thus giving the inaccurate impression that ragtime music was popular at that time.

The Recording Industry Association of America ranked it #10 on its 'Songs of the Century' list.[1]


A live performance of 'The Entertainer' in 2007.

'The Entertainer' is sub-titled 'A Rag Time Two Step', which was a form of dance popular until about 1911, and a style which was common among rags written at the time.

Its structure is: Intro–AA–BB–A–CC–Intro2–DD.[jargon][3]

It is primarily set in the key of C major; however, for the C section (commonly referred to as the 'Trio'), it modulates to the subdominant, F major, then through a transitional passage modulates back to C major for the D section.[jargon] The B section contains an indication that the melody is to be played an octave higher on the repeat.

In the June 7, 1903, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, contemporary composer Monroe H. Rosenfeld described 'The Entertainer' as 'the best and most euphonious' of Joplin's compositions to that point. 'It is a jingling work of a very original character, embracing various strains of a retentive character which set the foot in spontaneous action and leave an indelible imprint on the tympanum'.[3]

Joshua Rifkin Ragtime

Suggested by the rag's dedication to 'James Brown and his Mandolin Club', author Rudi Blesh wrote that 'some of the melodies recall the pluckings and the fast tremolos of the little steel-stringed plectrum instruments'.[4] Stark issued an arrangement of the piece for two mandolins and a guitar.[3]


Joshua Rifkin The Entertainer Video


The copyright on 'The Entertainer' was registered December 29, 1902, along with two other Joplin rags, 'A Breeze from Alabama' and 'Elite Syncopations', all three of which were published by John Stark & Son of St. Louis, Missouri.[3] The centerpiece of the original cover art featured a minstrel show caricature of a black man in formal attire on a theater stage.

Popularity and legacy[edit]

In November 1970, Joshua Rifkin released a recording called Scott Joplin: Piano Rags[5] on the classical label Nonesuch, which featured as its second track 'The Entertainer'. It sold 100,000 copies in its first year and eventually became Nonesuch's first million-selling record.[6] The Billboard 'Best-Selling Classical LPs' chart for September 28, 1974, has the record at #5, with the follow-up Volume 2 at #4, and a combined set of both volumes at #3. Separately both volumes had been on the chart for sixty-four weeks.[7] The album was nominated in 1971 for two Grammy Award categories, Best Album Notes and Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra), but at the ceremony on March 14, 1972, Rifkin did not win in any category.[8] In 1979 Alan Rich in the New York Magazine wrote that by giving artists like Rifkin the opportunity to put Joplin's music on disk, Nonesuch Records 'created, almost alone, the Scott Joplin revival'.[9]

Marvin Hamlisch lightly adapted and orchestrated Joplin's music for the 1973 film The Sting, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score and Adaptation on April 2, 1974.[8] His version of 'The Entertainer' reached #3 on the Billboard Hot 100 on May 18, 1974,[10][11] prompting The New York Times to write, 'the whole nation has begun to take notice'.[12] Thanks to the film and its score, Joplin's work became appreciated in both the popular and classical music worlds, becoming (in the words of music magazine Record World), the 'classical phenomenon of the decade'.[13] In the United States, 'The Entertainer' is one of many songs commonly played by ice cream trucks to attract attention.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abcdSullivan, Steve (May 12, 2017). Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings. 3. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 32–33. ISBN9781442254497.
  2. ^Whitburn, Joel (2002). Top Adult Contemporary: 1961–2001. Record Research. p. 110. ISBN0-89820-149-7.
  3. ^ abcdJasen, David A.; Trebor Jay Tichenor (1978). Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History. New York: Dover. pp. 89–90. ISBN0-486-25922-6.
  4. ^Rudi Blesh, p. xxiv, 'Scott Joplin: Black-American Classicist', Introduction to Scott Joplin Collected Piano Works, New York Public Library, 1981
  5. ^'Scott Joplin Piano Rags Nonesuch Records CD (w/bonus tracks)'. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  6. ^'Nonesuch Records'. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  7. ^Billboard 1974a, p. 61.
  8. ^ abLA Times n.d.
  9. ^Rich 1979.
  10. ^'Charis Music Group, compilation of cue sheets from the American Top 40 radio Show'(PDF). Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  11. ^Billboard 1974b, p. 64.
  12. ^Kronenberger, John (August 11, 1974). 'The Ragtime Revival—A Belated Ode to Composer Scott'. The New York Times.
  13. ^Record World Magazine. July 1974, quoted in: Berlin, Edward A. (1996). King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era, p. 251.
  14. ^Neely, Daniel Tannehill (Spring 2005). 'Soft Serve: Charting the aural promise of ice cream truck music'(PDF). Esopus. New York City (4). Archived from the original(PDF) on February 5, 2009.


  • 'Entertainment Awards Database'. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2009.
  • 'Best Selling Classical LPs'. Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (September 28, 1974). 1974a. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  • 'Hot 100'. Billboard. Nielsen Business Media (May 18, 1974). 1974b. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  • Rich, Alan (1979). 'Music'. New York (December 24, 1979): 81. Retrieved August 5, 2011.

External links[edit]

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Media related to Scott Joplin The Entertainer at Wikimedia Commons
  • Musical score and MIDI file at the Mutopia Project
  • Sheet music and mp3 at (interactive version requires Sibelius Scorch)
  • Free typeset sheet music from

Joshua Rifkin The Ragtime Dance

Retrieved from ''