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Tenzin Choedak spent much of his life cut off from his family. He fled his native Tibet as a young boy in 1991 and traveled to India with his uncle, amid the growing infringement of cultural and political rights at home.
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At the time, landline phones were the only available means of communication, but pricey phone calls were few and far between and out of reach for most students at his boarding school in India. In his early 20s, he was able to download the Chinese messaging service WeChat, so he could talk regularly with his family.
WeChat, a messaging service released in 2011 by the Chinese conglomerate Tencent, is the most popular social media platform among the roughly 90,000 Tibetan refugees in India. It has become a rare means of communication with people in Tibet, one of the most isolated regions in the world, where American tech companies like Facebook and Google are blocked by the Chinese government.
But now, as India and China ramp up fights over Chinese apps, a community of refugees is caught in the middle — forced to choose between surveillance and not being able to keep in touch with families.
Many in the Tibetan diaspora credit WeChat for helping them maintain relationships with their friends and relatives living on the other side of the Himalayan border.
Choedak, currently a student at the College for Higher Tibetan Studies in Sarah, located in rural North India, said WeChat helped bring him closer to his family.
Like many young children in the 1990s, Choedak was sent to India to study at a Tibetan school, following the Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing. The Chinese state had imposed a renewed crackdown on religious and political activities across its territories. It was also becoming increasingly difficult for Tibetan children to complete their education in their mother tongue, as nearly all middle and high schools in the Tibetan Autonomous Region had switched to offering instruction in Chinese. This furthered the exodus of Tibetans, which began in 1959 after a failed uprising against Chinese ruleforced the Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibetan people, into exile in India.
“[Tibetan refugees] first downloaded the app, because it was the only way for them to speak with family and loved ones in Tibet,” Tenzin Dalha, a research fellow at the Tibet Policy Institute in Dharamsala, India, told Rest of World. “What has also helped fuel its wide usage among the community is that, now, most Tibetans, both inside and outside Tibet, have access to the internet.”
The extent of the app’s popularity and influence, Dalha said, was perhaps best displayed during the 2016 Tibetan general elections, when it emerged as a political campaigning tool for candidates vying for a seat in the parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), which acts as the government of Tibetans in exile, overseeing Tibetan schools and providing services to Tibetan refugees.
Tibetans around the world actively engaged in campaigning and discussions about the elections on the platform, said Dalha, even though the CTA maintains a tough stance against China, and Lobsang Sangay, the current president, has spoken out against using WeChat in the past.
In months leading up to the election, candidates and their supporters created several WeChat groups to campaign and organize discussions. The platform provided an unprecedented opportunity for a dialogue and interaction between candidates and voters, said Dalha.
But although the app has helped open up communication between those living in exile and those in Tibet, its perceived closeness to the Chinese government and its potential to be used as a surveillance tool have been causes of concern, particularly among Tibetan activists who have long been targeted with cyber attacks.
Because WeChat is based in China, it must disclose information to the Chinese government, according to that country’s cybersecurity law. This means that Tibetans communicating on the app are handing over their communications to be read and possibly censored by Chinese officials.
“It’s no secret that WeChat engages in censorship at the behest of the Chinese authorities and that it flags off accounts found to be sharing information deemed ‘controversial’,” said Lobsang Sither, digital security program director at the Tibet Action Institute, a nonprofit focused on promoting use of technology for advocacy and awareness of cybersecurity within the Tibetan diaspora community. “Therefore, Tibetans need to understand the risks associated with using the app.”
The platform actively censors accounts based in China and engages in surveillance of non-China-based accounts, according to The Citizen Lab, a research center at the University of Toronto. Some of the keywords blocked on the platform include references to the Tibetan independence movement, Free Tibet, and a Tibetan rights group, the Tibetan Youth Congress.
“Depending on what keywords you use, your entire conversation may be censored or your account may be flagged for surveillance,” said Sither.Latest version
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