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“And they lived happily ever after.” This line alone should give you an idea that this article is talking about the romance genre. And while a Happily Ever After is really a non-optional feature of the genre, authors can choose to incorporate romance tropes to provide readers with instantly recognizable markers that help them immediately relate to the love story at hand.

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Tropes are plot devices, characters, images, or themes that are incorporated so frequently in a genre that they’re seen as conventional. “Trope” is often seen as a dirty word, because it feels interchangeable with the word “cliché.” And while authors shouldn’t simply duplicate story formulas that have proven popular, incorporating tropes can provide a signal to readers about what kind of book they’re dealing with. At their core, tropes are really just things that are familiar. And people enjoy the familiar.

So if you’re an aspiring romance writer, do yourself a favor by getting acquainted with the popular romance tropes out there. It will help you get an idea of what romance readers already like, and will help you write stories that feel refreshing and new. You can start with this list!

11 of the most popular romance tropes

1) The ‘Trapped in an Elevator’

This trope has a number of popular variations: the “have to spend a night in a cabin,” the “stuck in a car in a blizzard,” the “trapped overnight in the office,” etc. The point is two people who likely barely know each other (or aren’t very fond of one another) are forced together in a relatively enclosed space. They have to rely one on another to get through the experience, come to appreciate one another, and eventually fall in love.

(Bonus points if the place where they're staying has only one bed which they begrudgingly agree to share!)

Example: In the 1934 romantic comedy film, It Happened One Night (you probably know it from this hitchhiking scene), Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert are forced to share a hotel room with twin beds (which was just as scandalous as sharing the same bed back in the day). They hang a sheet between the two beds to create privacy, but the night remains intimate nevertheless.

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2) The ‘Love Triangle’

Charlie and Jim love Diane. Or maybe Diane loves Jim, and Jim loves Charlie, and Charlie loves Diane. Either way, three’s a crowd in this romance trope, and someone, if not everyone, is going to end up getting hurt.

Example: In The Hunger Games, Peeta and Gale both love Katniss. (Bonus points to Suzanne Collins for incorporating the Fake Relationship when Katniss and Peeta pretend to be married).

3) The ‘Fake Relationship’

For one reason or another, two people must pretend to be in a relationship. This real-life exercise in method acting eventually becomes more real than either of them had expected and they fall in love. Typically, once their “arrangements” ends, they will part ways, thinking there is no hope for a real relationship to blossom… until one — or both — of them declare their true feelings.

Example: In To All the Boys I've Loved Before, high-schooler Lara Jean is mortified to learn that her mash notes have been delivered to the boys she's crushed on over the years. When one of these crushes confronts her about his letter, she deflects his questions by lying about being in a relationship with a fellow classmate. Peter, himself going through a breakup, agrees to go along with the ruse for Lara’s sake.

Check out this post on all the different subgenres in romance!

4) The ‘Enemies Become Lovers’

We’ll get to the whole “love at first sight” trope a little later, but first let’s talk about hate at first sight. Two characters meet and immediately dislike each other, perhaps due to opposing views or often because of a misunderstanding. Through the course of the story, this dislike will become more entrenched until some sort of event (perhaps a Trapped in an Elevator situation) will force them to look at one another in a different light. The characters will likely try to deny their softening feelings until they become impossible to deny.

Example: Unsurprisingly, this trope features in Sally Thorne’s novel The Hating Game. Lucy and Joshua, both executive assistants to co-CEOs of a publishing company, can’t stand one another. When they compete for the same promotion, the tension between them reaches boiling point. Which is also when they start to realize that all that tension is masking another kind of feeling...

5) The ‘Belated Love Epiphany’

As Joni Mitchell sings in 'Big Yellow Taxi' — 'Don't it always seem to go, that you don't know what you've got 'til it’s gone?' That’s the whole idea behind the popular Belated Love Epiphany: the protagonist loses, or is at risk of losing, someone they overlooked. And only in their absence does the protagonist begin to realize what the other character meant to them.

(Bonus points: the epiphany leads the protagonist to run through an airport, train station, or similar in order to stop the other character leaving by declaring their love).

Example: In My Fair Lady, Professor Higgins makes a bet that he can turn Eliza Doolittle “into a lady” with six months of elocution lessons. He wins the bet but loses Eliza, having only regarded her as a means to an end. Only once she's gone does he realize that he had 'grown accustomed to her face.”

6) The ‘Friends to Lovers’

Two childhood friends go through the trials and tribulations of adolescence together, counting on one another. Fast forward to their adult lives: they haven’t spoken in decades but think of one another every so often. Brought back together for some reason, they reignite their friendship. For a while, they may see each other as just friends, but ultimately realize that — despite all the years apart — they were meant to be together.

Example: Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park begins with young Fanny going to live with her wealthy aunt and uncle. Once there, she becomes best friends with her cousin Edmund. As they grow up together, Fanny falls in love with Edmund; a fact she fiercely conceals, as Edmund makes it clear he does not feel the same. Eventually, Fanny is sent away and Edmund very nearly marries the wrong woman. Years later, the two are reunited, and Edmund sees what was in front of him all along (making this example also a Belated Love Epiphany).

7) The ‘I’m Actually a Secret Royal/Billionaire’

Members of the monarchy — they’re just like us, eh! Or at least, that’s the case with this romance trope. A royal figure or billionaire is tired of being in the public light. They just want to be treated as a normal person for a while, so they adopt a disguise or go somewhere they won’t be recognized. Then they meet someone who doesn’t give them the preferential treatment they’re used to. In fact, this new person likely treats them with casual disregard. This intrigues the secret royal/billionaire, who looks to get to know the other character better. The two form a relationship which blows up when the unsuspecting character finds out their love’s true identity, and feels betrayed by the lie. But then they get over it, one way or another, and the two end up together.

Example: Played to a T in The Prince and Me. Edvard is Denmark’s Crown Prince. When he sees a commercial showing American coeds lifting up their shirts for the camera, Edvard decides he wants to flee his life of royal responsibilities to attend the University of Wisconsin college (charming). There he meets Paige, a pre-med student who, initially, is not a fan of Edvard. The two eventually develop a relationship at the coffee shop they both work at, and romance ensues. When Paige discovers Edvard’s true identity, she leaves him. But the two eventually reconcile and end up pledging to be together.

8) The ‘Destined To Be Together’

While a lot of these examples of romance tropes have to do with two people slowly realizing their feelings for one another, the Destined To Be Together involves couples who know right from the start that they are in love. Their intense immediate bond is what maintains their resolve that they’re meant to be together while the universe, typically, conspires to separate them.

Example: In The Princess Bride, Westley is a farmhand to Buttercup and her family. As children, they fall in love. Westley goes off in pursuit of riches so that he can marry Buttercup and provide for her. When Buttercup receives news that leads her to believe Westley has died, she agrees to a proposal by Prince Humperdink. But Westley is alive and well, and comes back for Buttercup, leading the pair on a journey to fight for their one true love.

9) The 'Second Chance at Love'

This romance trope can play out in a number of ways. Perhaps a couple breaks up only to reunite decades later. Maybe they have been deeply hurt in the past, and have spent years avoiding any kind of romantic relationship. Now they will meet and learn to give love another chance. This is a hopeful trope that readers enjoy because it enforces the theme that “it’s never too late.”

Example: In Nora Roberts’ Birthright, Callie is an archaeologist called to work at a site where five-thousand year-old human bones have been found. As is her ex-husband Jake, with whom she had a passionate marriage that eventually disintegrated due to lack of communication and trust. Now, forced to work together again, they are confronted by their old problems and are forced to acknowledge that they still love one another.

10) The ‘Forbidden Love’

The forbidden fruit tastes the sweetest, right? This romance trope involves two people who are desperately in love but are forced apart — either by their families, their culture, or geographical distance. Whatever the case, something is preventing them from being together. You could also call this the “Star-Crossed Lovers” trope, as the term “star-crossed” means that destiny has ruled something cannot be.

Example: Because the trope could also be called the “Romeo and Juliet” for how much the two are associated, we’ll go with a different example. In The Notebook, Noah and Allie fall in love from the get-go when they meet as teenagers. After a summer solidifying their soulmate status, Allie’s family moves away, separating the two. Her parents do not believe working class Noah is the right fit for upper class Allie, so her mother hides all the letters Noah sends, breaking Allie’s heart and forcing her to move on. Until… well, we all remember the kiss that won MTV’s Best Kiss award, right? (This is also an example of a ‘Second Chance at Love’ trope).

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11) The 'You’ve Changed'

Instead of following two people on their path to love love, this kind of story starts out with two people who are already in love, and likely married or in a committed relationship. One of the people in the pair ends up getting a new job or falling in with a new crowd of friends that changes them in some way, perhaps by altering their values or priorities. Maybe their new situation is simply eating up all their time so that they are no longer as dedicated to the relationship. Their significant other will make their feelings known, and eventually leave, when the relationship continues to disintegrate. This will cause the protagonist to realize that despite their high-flying career or flashy friends, their life is empty without their significant other, and they go back to their old ways, eventually convincing the other person to give them another chance.

Example: In the movie adaptation of Lauren Weisberger’s The Devil Wears Prada, Andrea gets a job as a personal assistant to a powerful fashion magazine editor. She sees this job as a stepping stone to a full-fledged career as a journalist, and therefore gives it everything she’s got. The job begins to consume her and change her values, until her boyfriend Alex no longer recognizes her and he leaves. Only when she quits her job and gets back in touch with her roots do they end up back together.

How to make romance tropes feel new

Alright, now you’ve got an idea of the common conventions of romance, you can get started on putting your own spin on them. If you need a little extra help breathing new life into classic romance tropes, you can check out this detailed section of our post on fantasy tropes that walks authors through three trope-bending techniques. Here’s two examples:

  • Deconstruction. Embrace a trope in order to encourage discussion about that trope. For example, in Madame Bovary, the titular character spends all her time reading romance novels, and bases her actions and decisions on the hope that it will turn her own life into the fairytales she reads. Spoiler: there is no Happily Ever After.
  • Subversion. Give readers the sense that a trope is playing out as expected, only to defy their expectations when it unfolds in a different manner. Example: In Angels by Marian Keyes, the heroine rushes to the airport to declare love to her estranged husband (playing out the Belated Love Epiphany trope). She is stopped by security guards and returns home, sans husband. When she walks into her house, he is there waiting for her.

Finally, you can embrace tropes with the reassurance you’re still telling a unique story by paying attention to the details and specificity within your story. As writer and humorist John Hodgman remarks, “Specificity is the soul of narrative.”

Develop unique characters, write meet-cutes that resonate with the theme of your story, pepper your narrative arc with conflict and tension that feel real. Most of all, pay attention to the love story you’re writing, and work on developing that in a way that draws readers in and encourages emotional investment. Finally, evaluate whether you’re using a trope simply because you know readers like it, or because it adds value to your story. There’s nothing wrong with including elements you know readers love, so long as it enhances the story in one way or another.

With love,
Reedsy

If you want even more amazing tropes, check out the following Reedsy Discovery posts on romance:

And let us know your own favorite tropes in the comments! 💖

Also covered in this article are the characters Snowden and Yossarian's tentmates.

Capt. John Yossarian is a fictional character, the protagonist of Joseph Heller's satirical 1961 novel Catch-22 and its 1994 sequel Closing Time. In Catch-22, Yossarian is a 28-year-old captain in the 256th Squadron of the Army Air Forces where he serves as a B-25bombardier stationed on the small island of Pianosa off the Italian mainland during World War II. Yossarian's exploits have previously been thought to be based on the experiences of the author. Heller was also a bombardier in the Army Air Corps, stationed on an island off the coast of Italy during the war. Heller later documented in his autobiography 'Now & Then' the elements of Yossarian which came from his experiences (specifically the episodes where Yossarian attends to Snowden during the Avignon mission). Heller noted that he derived the name Yossarian from a wartime friend and fellow bombardier, Francis Yohannan. Yohannan made the military his career, continuing to serve through the Vietnam War, placing him at odds with Yossarian's feelings towards the military and as noted in his obituary '(Yohannan) turned aside calls from reporters who asked if he was the real-life Yossarian.' A possible source for Yossarian's narrative adventure and efforts to be relieved of his combat duties is Lt. Julius Fish, another bombardier and wartime friend to both Francis Yohannan and Joseph Heller.

Name[edit]

Yossarian's first name is 'John,' but this is not revealed until late in Catch-22 when Colonel Korn says to him 'Call me Blackie, John. We're pals now.'Catch-22 introduces Yossarian as an American soldier in World War II with Assyrian heritage.[1]

The exotic name 'Yossarian' was chosen by Heller to emphasize his protagonist's detachment from mainstream military culture. Yossarian's name is described as 'an odious, alien, distasteful name, that just did not inspire confidence.' It was '...not at all like such clean, crisp, honest, American names as Cathcart, Peckem and Dreedle.' As to the origins of the name, 'Heller admitted in later years that the name 'Yossarian' was derived from the name of one of his Air Force buddies, Francis Yohannan – an Assyrian – but that the character of Yossarian himself was 'the incarnation of a wish' (Now and Then 175-6).[2] When asked how he felt about the war, Heller wrote, 'Much differently than Yossarian felt and much differently than I felt when I wrote the novel … In truth I enjoyed it and so did just about everyone else I served with, in training and even in combat.'[3]

Character sketch[edit]

Motivation[edit]

Throughout the novel, Yossarian's main concern is the idea that people are trying to kill him, either directly (by attacking his plane) or indirectly (by forcing him to fly missions) and he goes to great lengths to stay alive.

Goals[edit]

Yossarian's motivation is to 'live forever or die in the attempt.' To survive the war, Yossarian employs a number of stratagems

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  • Postponing dangerous missions by any means possible (e.g. poisoning the squadron and moving the bomb line during the 'Great Big Siege of Bologna').
  • Constantly checking into the hospital with contrived liver complaints ('a pain in his liver that fell just short of being jaundice'), including the fictitious 'Garnett-Fleischaker syndrome' and by exploiting the fact he always runs a temperature of 101 degrees fahrenheit (38 degrees celsius).
  • Ordering his pilot to perform harsh evasive action in the face of flak, something he will not trust anyone else to do.
  • 'Plotting an emergency heading into Switzerland' so he can be interned for the duration of the war 'under conditions of utmost ease and luxury.'

Yossarian, like many of the other soldiers, tries to escape the realities of war by getting drunk, gorging himself in the mess hall and having sex, although events in the novel make it easy to believe he would do these things anyway.

Relationships and conflicts[edit]

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Yossarian is in continual conflict with the military policy 'Catch-22,' a circularly-reasoned bureaucratic trap which his superiors use to justify many of their illogical demands.

The bulk of Catch-22 concerns Yossarian's relationships with the other officers in his squadron, such as the neurotic Hungry Joe, the war profiteerMilo, the idealistic Nately and selfish Doc Daneeka. There are many characters Yossarian hates and likes. His best friends are Dunbar, Chaplain Tappman, Nately, Hungry Joe, McWatt and Orr. Yossarian is greatly saddened when Clevinger and Orr disappear, despite frequently arguing with these characters. He hates the majority of his superiors for putting him in harm's way, especially the sadistic Joe McCarthy-like careerist Captain Black and the egomaniacal Colonel Cathcart, who continually raises the number of missions required before the aircrews can rotate back home as well as volunteering his aircrews for the most dangerous missions, to make himself look good to his superiors.

Yossarian shows particular grief for the men that die during the novel, particularly Snowden, McWatt, Nately, Dobbs and Hungry Joe or those who disappear: Orr, Clevinger and Dunbar. While the book tells us nothing of Yossarian's relationship with Snowden, it is Yossarian's doomed attempt to save Snowden and his witnessing the latter's gruesome death that forms the emotional centre of the book.

Epiphany[edit]

At the end of the novel, Yossarian accepts a deal with Colonel Cathcart and Colonel Korn rather than face a court-martial for going AWOL in Rome. The deal allows Yossarian to go home but only if he pretends to be 'pals' to Colonel Cathcart and Colonel Korn; to 'become one of the boys.' Korn explains this means the Army is 'going to glorify you and send you home a hero, recalled by the Pentagon for morale and public-relations purposes.' It allows Yossarian to get out of the war, without any more contribution to the low morale which has been spreading through the Group because of him and to make the colonels look good to their superiors. Yossarian finds this deal 'odious' as it lets down all the others in the squadron who were relying on his dissent to force their commanders to treat them better and admits he did it 'in a moment of weakness.' When he learns the 'official report' had twisted the event of Nately's whore stabbing him into Yossarian taking a knife wound from a Nazi assassin to protect the colonels, Yossarian resents being manipulated as 'part of the deal.'

Yossarian's epiphany comes when he hears of Orr’s escape to neutral Sweden, the culmination of Orr's many attempts to escape combat duty (constantly crashing his plane, the prostitute hitting him over the head, etc.) which Yossarian had interpreted as incompetence; Orr had offered hints of this intention in exchanges between the two. Yossarian realizes it is possible to defeat (or at least escape) the military and the Catch-22 that supports it. Yossarian justifies his desertion by stating 'I’m not running away from my responsibilities. I’m running to them. There’s nothing negative about running away to save my life.'

In Catch-22[edit]

Throughout the book, Yossarian's main concern is the idea that people are trying to kill him, either directly (by attacking his plane) or indirectly (by forcing him to fly missions). His suspicion develops into paranoia after his attempts to find answers by using logic and reason are thwarted by a combination of vague bureaucracy, transparent yet contradicting Army regulations and personality conflicts. He is unable to fly the required number of missions to be discharged from duty, because his superiors keep increasing the number of missions. He cannot obtain a Section 8 by pretending to be insane because his superiors see his desire to get out of flying as a sign of perfect sanity (hence Catch-22). Yossarian boycotts flying missions as much as possible, either through feigning illness or inventing an excuse to return to base (like a busted intercom.) The novel begins with Yossarian staying in the hospital due to an invented liver condition. He busies himself by arbitrarily censoring letters and signing them Washington Irving, Irving Washington, or (as gets the Chaplain into trouble with authorities) A. T. Tappman, the Chaplain's name (R. O. Shipman in the original version of the book and in British Editions).

Whenever on leave, Yossarian and his friends carouse, drink, and sleep around as much as they can, knowing and fearing they could be killed on the next mission. One of the prostitutes they employ becomes Nately's unofficial girlfriend (she is referred to only as 'Nately's Whore' and 'Nately's Girl'). Despite Nately's repeated advances, she spurns him cruelly until he, instead of sleeping with her, lets her get a good night's sleep. By the next morning she has fallen deeply in love with him. When Nately is killed, she blames Yossarian for his death; she manifests a towering rage and tries to kill Yossarian several times during the remainder of the narrative in an impossible manner (constantly tracking Yossarian down, even after he dumped her hundreds of miles behind enemy territory.)

Yossarian's tentmates[edit]

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The squadron houses its soldiers in large tents. At the start of the novel Yossarian is assigned to a tent with Orr and a third officer referred to as 'The Dead Man in Yossarian's Tent' – Lt. Mudd – who was sent on a mission immediately upon his arrival and died in combat before he ever even got the official chance to check in. His belongings remain on the bed where he threw them; due to the illogical bureaucratic procedures the armed forces are shown to follow, the belongings cannot be officially removed since Mudd had never officially arrived.

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Yossarian and Orr get along well and Orr customizes the tent making it much more comfortable. After Orr is declared M.I.A. and presumed dead, four new officers are assigned to the tent but Yossarian cannot tolerate them. Sergeant Towser offers Yossarian the option of being assigned to the same tent as Nately but he refuses to leave.

The new tentmates call Yossarian 'Yo-Yo' and are afraid of him and go out of their way to help him, always offering him the warmest expressions of goodwill and generally behaving with intolerable conviviality. They are rambunctious because of their young age and lack of military experience. They tend to like those whom Yossarian hates and fears and do not mind the increasing number of missions. They do what Yossarian and the Air Force were unable to do – get rid of The Dead Man in Yossarian's Tent – by throwing his belongings into the woods.

Snowden[edit]

Snowden is a member of Yossarian's flight during a mission and acts as catalyst for the fundamental change in Yossarian's mentality and outlook. After their aircraft is hit by anti-aircraft fire, Snowden is mortally wounded and Yossarian attempts to help by treating a serious leg wound with white bandages and sulfanilamide powder.

Eventually Yossarian notices bleeding from Snowden's armpit and realises he has another wound under his flak suit. As Yossarian rips open the flak suit, a fatal wound beneath exposes Snowden's internal organs which fall out onto the floor. A huge chunk of flak had ripped straight through his ribs from behind. Yossarian is horrified at the sight. Snowden is about to die but is able to tell Yossarian he is cold. Yossarian covers Snowden in a parachute and comforts him by saying 'there, there.'

Snowden's death embodies Yossarian's desire to evade death; by seeing Snowden's entrails spilling over the plane, he feels that 'Man was matter, that was Snowden’s secret. Drop him out a window and he’ll fall. Set fire to him and he’ll burn. Bury him and he’ll rot, like other kinds of garbage. That was Snowden’s secret. Ripeness was all.'

The experience on the plane dramatically changes Yossarian's attitude towards life. He looks only to protect his life and to an extent the lives of his friends. Yossarian turns against the military and refuses to wear a uniform, his justification being he simply 'doesn't want to,' perhaps because he was traumatized and depressed by Snowden's death. The excuse Captain Korn gives to General Dreedle is that Snowden died in one uniform and his remains had soaked into Yossarian's, and all of Yossarian's other articles of clothing were in the laundry. General Dreedle says 'That sounds like a lot of crap to me.' Yossarian replies, 'It is a lot of crap, sir.'

Finale[edit]

Life

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By the end of the book, just about every other member of his squadron has been killed, disappeared, gone AWOL, or otherwise removed. When Yossarian learns from Captain Black that Nately's Whore's kid sister has been evicted by the Military Police, he flies with Milo to Rome without leave to try to save her. He can't find her and ends up walking through the street observing all the horrors that come with war. He gets back to the officers' apartment, where Aarfy has raped and murdered Michaela. When the MPs finally come, they do not arrest Aarfy and instead arrest Yossarian for going AWOL.

Yossarian is forced by Colonel Cathcart and Colonel Korn into an odious deal whereby if he acts as their 'pal' he will be allowed to go home. The deal is designed so the rest of the squadron will not believe Yossarian will be sent home because he has 'turned into such a stubborn son of a bitch' and refused to fly but because – being a hero from the Ferrara mission in which he went into the flak zones a second time without support – he is being sent home as a P.R. representative for the Army.

On leaving the colonels, Yossarian is badly injured when Nately's whore stabs him and he is rushed to hospital where he recovers and is visited by the Chaplain and Major Danby., who confirms the deal with the colonels is still on but Yossarian wishes not to take it as it lets the rest of the squadron down.

While Yossarian is trying to work out how to escape this Catch-22, the Chaplain runs in to announce the missing Orr is alive and well and has rowed his way to neutral Sweden, escaping the war. This gives a new lease on life to the Chaplain, Major Danby and more so to Yossarian who now sees the genius of Orr's plans and makes him determined to escape the war. As Yossarian leaves, Nately's whore again tries to kill him but Yossarian jumps out of the way and runs off.

Closing Time hints the idealistic escape did not occur, with Yossarian saying that when he went home, he was made a major. While Korn and Cathcart are not mentioned, there are implications that perhaps Yossarian took their deal in the end. This reflects more the character of the older Yossarian, who by his late sixties has become a part of the society he spurned in his youth.

Film portrayal[edit]

In Mike Nichols' 1970 film adaptation of the novel Yossarian was played by Alan Arkin, while in the 1973 television series pilot Catch-22, based on the novel and the 1970 film, he was played by Richard Dreyfuss. Christopher Abbot plays Yossarian in George Clooney's 2019 mini-series for Hulu.[4]

The miniseries portrays Yossarian with his desire to leave the war intact, but stooping to various lows that harm his fellow soldiers as well as some of his superiors. He has no qualms meeting Cathcart's demands when offered the chance to permanently leave the war and it is only Scheisskopf's intervention that forces him to stay. The ending has him resigning himself to his missions, albeit without clothes.

References[edit]

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  1. ^Heller, Joseph. Closing Time. New York City: Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–2, 236. ISBN9780743586528.
  2. ^Scoggins, Michael C.: 'Joseph Heller’s Combat Experiences in Catch-22'; War, Literature and the Arts, vol. 15; pg. 223. United States Air Force Academy, 2003. (available hereArchived August 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine)
  3. ^'Catch-22 author Joseph Heller: 'How did I feel about the war? I enjoyed it?''. The Guardian.
  4. ^'When is Hulu's Catch-22 released, who's in the cast with George Clooney and what's the trailer?'. Radio X. Retrieved 2019-05-21.

External links[edit]

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  • Quotations related to Catch-22 at Wikiquote

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