Chromium Vanadium

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The doses of supplemental vanadium far exceed the apparent human vanadium requirement (10 mcg/d) whereas the levels of chromium supplementation surpass the safe and adequate intake level for chromium (50 to 200 mcg/d). Adverse effects of ingestion of these mineral supplements at these doses have been reported. Colloidal Chromium Vanadium 4 oz Liquid Product Description. Futurebiotics Advanced Colloidal Chromium Vanadium is a high-quality, chemical-free supplement that consists of ultra-fine, microscopic chromium and vanadium particles in exacting, balanced combination and suspended in pure, deionized water for easy absorption by the body.

Chromium-vanadium steel is an alloy made of iron with carbon, chrome and vanadium added to improve the properties of the metal. These alloys vary by percentage of additives; they commonly are stronger at high temperatures. Chromium Vanadium is one of numerous metal alloys sold by American Elements under the trade name AE Alloys™. Generally immediately available in most volumes, AE Alloys™ are available as bar, ingot, ribbon, wire, shot, sheet, and foil. Vanadium chromium alloy weight titanium Prior art date 1989-08-15 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Expired - Lifetime Application number US07/409,505 Inventor Chester C.

Steel

Lessons From Micronutrient Studies In Patients With Glucose Intolerance and Diabetes Mellitus: Chromium and Vanadium

Henry C. Lukaski, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT

Public interest in the use of supplemental vanadium and chromium to ameliorate the symptoms of diabetes is burgeoning because of their putative action as insulin potentiating agents. Since 1980, evidence has accumulated to show that vanadium salts, vanadyl and vanadate, mimic insulin action in isolated cell systems and produce glucose-lowering effects when given to animals with diabetes. Supplementation of diabetic patients with vanadium salts in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg of elemental vanadium daily for up to six weeks elicits partial normalization of glucose metabolic irregularities. Also, chromium supplements, specifically chromium picolinate, in amounts of 400 to 1000 mcg/d ameliorate glucose metabolic abnormalities in some patients with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. The doses of supplemental vanadium far exceed the apparent human vanadium requirement (10 mcg/d) whereas the levels of chromium supplementation surpass the safe and adequate intake level for chromium (50 to 200 mcg/d). Adverse effects of ingestion of these mineral supplements at these doses have been reported. Thus, doses of these minerals that elicit beneficial effects are pharmacologic and not nutritional.

References

Chromium

Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am Coll Nutr 16: 404-410, 1997.

Anderson RA, N Cheng, NA Bryden, MM Polansky, N Cheng, J Chi, J Feng. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 46: 1786-1791, 1997.

Cefalu WT, AD Bell-Farrow, J Stenger, ZQ Wang, T King, T Morgan, JG Terry. Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo. J Trace Elem Exp Med 12: 71-83, 1999.

Cheng N, X Zhu, H Shi, W Wu, J Chi, J Cheng, RA Anderson. Follow-up survey of people in China with type 2 diabetes consuming supplemental chromium. J Trace Elem Exp Med 12: 55-60, 1999.

Davis CM, JB Vincent. Chromium oligopeptide activates insulin receptor kinase activity. Biochemistry 36: 4382-4385, 1997.

Davis CM, JB Vincent. Isolation and characterization of a biologically active chromium oligopeptide from bovine liver. Arch Biochem Biophys 339: 335-343, 1997.

Jovanovic L, M Guttierrez, CM Peterson. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes. J Trace Elem Exp Med 12: 91-97, 1999.

Lukaski HC. Chromium as a supplement. Ann Rev Nutr 19: 279-302, 1999.

Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr 123: 626-633, 1993.

Ravina A, L Slezak, N Mirsky, RA Anderson. Control of steroid-induced diabetes with supplemental chromium. J Trace Elem Exp Med 12: 375-378, 1999.

Speetjens JK, RA Collins, JB Vincent, SA Wolski. The nutritional supplement chromium(III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol 12: 483-487, 1999.

Stearns, DM. Is chromium a trace essential metal? Biofactors 11: 149-162, 2000.

Vincent JB. Mechanisms of chromium action: low-molecular weight-chromium-binding substance. J Am Coll Nutr 18: 6-12, 1999.

Vincent JB. The biochemistry of chromium. J Nutr 130: 715-718, 2000.

Vanadium

Cohen N, M Halberstram, P Shilmovich, CJ Chang, H Sharnoon, L Rossetti. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 95: 2501-2509, 1995.

Goldfine AB, DC Simonson, F Folli, ME Patti, CR Kahn. Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with insulin-dependent and non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 3311-3320, 1995.

Goldfine AB, DC Simonson, F Folli, ME Patti, CR Kahn. In vivo and in vitro studies of vanadate in human and rodent diabetes mellitus. Mol Cell Biochem 153: 217-231, 1995.

Goldfine AB, ME Patti, L Zuberi, BJ Goldstein, R LeBlanc, EJ Landaker, ZY Jiang, GR Willsky, CR Kahn. Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies. Metabolism 49: 400-410, 2000.

Chromium

Hamel FG, WC Duckworth. The relationship between insulin and vanadium metabolism in insulin target tissues. Mol Cell Biochem 153: 95-102, 1995.

Thompson KH. Vanadium and diabetes. BioFactors 10: 43-51, 1999.

Thompson KH, JH McNeill, C Orvig. Vanadium compounds as insulin mimetics. Chem Rev 99: 2561-2571, 1999.

Chromium Vanadium Benefits

Verna S, MC Cam, JH McNeill. Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium. J Am Coll Nutr 17: 11-18, 1998.

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Vanadium was one of the Natural sciences good articles, but it has been removed from the list. There are suggestions below for improving the article to meet the good article criteria. Once these issues have been addressed, the article can be renominated. Editors may also seek a reassessment of the decision if they believe there was a mistake.
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Biological Role[edit]

Vanadium has a significant biological role aside being present in an alternative nitrogenase. For example, V(III) has a role in tunic synthesis in ascideans, V(IV) is involved peroxidase and catalase activity in some toadstools, and V(V) is certain defensive halogen peroxidases. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Semoderm (talk • contribs) 06:49, 14 April 2009 (UTC)

And it's part of an oxygen-transport system in some animals, isn't it? Eldin raigmore (talk) 18:45, 16 May 2009 (UTC)
This is speculation and not yet proven.--Stone (talk) 12:03, 18 May 2009 (UTC)

Shouldn't Vanadium also be in Category:Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements ? Eldin raigmore (talk) 18:46, 16 May 2009 (UTC)

Wanted to suggest additional information on biological vanadium. Scientific American blog recently published an article on Pyura Chilensis, in immobile, invertebrate sac-like filter feeders that belong to the Tunicata subphylum and practically bleed vanadium. From the blog post - 'Their blood is clear and, strangely, can accumulte extremely high [quantities] of a mysterious and rare element called vanadium. The concentration of vanadium in the blood of P. chilensis and other tunicates can be up to 10 million times that of the surrounding seawater. Just why and how these creatures are able to accumulate vanadium in such huge quantities remains unknown.' [1]Smash591 (talk) 16:34, 10 July 2013 (UTC)
Started to fix the section about mammals, including mention that there is no RDA or AI, but still needs more work updating the diabetes mention. David notMD (talk) 20:52, 14 August 2017 (UTC)
Rewrote and re-referenced the diabetes mention. Deleted all mention of use (mis-use) as a bodybuilding dietary supplement, as there is no scientific literature on this topic. The untested theory is that if vanadium has insulin-like effects, that should include more muscle protein synthesis. David notMD (talk) 09:59, 16 August 2017 (UTC)

External links modified[edit]

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Mining / Producers[edit]

The article is missing some information on the largest producers of Vanadium (companies, countries, regions). Also: Is Vanadium mostly a byproduct of mines exploiting primarily other stuff, or is Vanadium mining mainly a standalone operation? If the latter: What are its byproducts? --BjKa (talk) 12:22, 14 December 2018 (UTC)

Chromium Vanadium
The article contains the sentence:

Is this the information you were looking for? --Stone (talk) 17:39, 15 December 2018 (UTC)

  • Titanomagnetites which are used to produce steel are giving a slag with high enough vanadium content for leaching and vanadium extraction[2]
  • In south afrika titanomagnetites are first reduced in an rotary kiln and later fully reduced in submerged-arc furnace. There a vanadium enriched pig iron is produced which later is oxidized in shaking lades. There vanadium containig slag is produced which is later used to extract the vanadium.<re<W.S. Steinberg*, W. Geyser*, and J. Nell. 'The history and development of the pyrometallurgical processes at Evraz Highveld Steel & Vanadium'(PDF).Cite journal requires journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)</ref>[3]

Chromium Vanadium Liquid

  1. ^'Pyura chilensis: The closest thing to getting blood from a stone'.
  2. ^Hukkanen, E.; Walden, H. (1985). 'The production of vanadium and steel from titanomagnetites'. International Journal of Mineral Processing. 15 (1–2): 89–102. doi:10.1016/0301-7516(85)90026-2.
  3. ^https://www.saimm.co.za/Journal/v080n09p323.pdf

GA Reassessment[edit]

This discussion is transcluded from Talk:Vanadium/GA3. The edit link for this section can be used to add comments to the reassessment.

Alot of maintenance tags on this. If someone is keen to resolve these then we can look at other issues. AIRcorn(talk) 11:22, 17 January 2020 (UTC)

Tried to add a few references. --Stone (talk) 08:34, 21 January 2020 (UTC)
And we seem to have gotten all but one citation needed tag. (Regrettably, I don't currently have access to my copy of Greenwood & Earnshaw, which would be very helpful!) Double sharp (talk) 20:14, 23 January 2020 (UTC)

Rest of review[edit]

Similarly to the situation with Pd, the article frequently strays from the main topic and has some MoS issues as well. Would probably require a rewrite to re-achieve GA status, which will certainly come in time. Will give 7 more days to see if substantial improvements are made to the article, but it doesn't appear too likely. Utopes(talk / cont) 00:38, 25 February 2020 (UTC)

@Utopes: Are there any in particular you have in mind? This seems easier to fix, as the citation issues seem to have been largely dealt with. Double sharp (talk) 14:09, 26 February 2020 (UTC)
@Double sharp:, sorry for the delay. I have not been actively monitoring this reassessment, but I'm glad to see that you are willing to look into this article to retain its Good Article status.

History[edit]

Nothing major stands out to me in terms of needing improvement. The content is all suitable, but could use some light copyediting in terms of punctuation and transition. This is something that I might do after this list is complete. Done. Utopes(talk / cont) 22:04, 1 March 2020 (UTC)

Characteristics[edit]

'Some sources' is weaselly, and 'perhaps' does not give confidence to the reader about the validity of the claim.

Chemistry[edit]

I believe that this section goes far too in depth with information about vanadium pentoxide, and includes information that is far more suitable on the compound's article rather than in the article for Vanadium. While I don't disagree that vanadium pentoxide is an important use for vanadium, it is not the primary topic of the article, and the article's pacing could better be spent discussing the chemistry of pure vanadium.

V2O5 is rather an industrially important compound, though. It looks like a lot mainly because it's one paragraph split up by two equations: there is a lot more that can be said about it and what is included honestly does not look like much to me. We can't exactly talk only about the chemistry of the pure element, because as soon as an element exhibits some chemistry it's not the pure element anymore. ;) Double sharp (talk) 19:34, 5 March 2020 (UTC)

Occurrences[edit]

All of the subsections should probably be combined, and try to be woven more coherently together. I would start at a macro scale before moving down to small scale, all in one section. An example of this would be starting at the presence of vanadium in the universe, then the earth's crust, and then how it is found on earth (whether it's in seawater or bauxite). From there, I would make a subsection talking about where on earth vanadium is found, and what countries produce the most of it.

Biological role[edit]

I've been letting this word slide earlier, but 'Vanadium is more important in marine environments than terrestrial' is subjective in the terms that anybody can deem what they think is more important to them, and I'd recommend that this sentence be altered or removed. I'd also say that this section is far too long. By this I mean that the concentration of vanadium in the blood of ascidians isn't important enough to include in the article, but because importance is suggestive, I won't push for the removal of this content.

Final thoughts[edit]

I probably wouldn't have GAR'ed this article, but because it was, I figured I would follow through with the review because there were several problems that needed addressing. With that being said, the fixes needed above are all that I think are necessary in order to bring the article back to GA status. Utopes(talk / cont) 21:54, 1 March 2020 (UTC)

Been a month, delisting. Utopes(talk / cont) 04:43, 31 March 2020 (UTC)

Biological sources & health[edit]

What foods include V and its positive and negative effects on health should be expanded. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10381252 is a possible source. Kdammers (talk) 15:01, 24 April 2020 (UTC)

The biological role, is described as it might be esential, but especially if inhaled you are fast in the toxic reagion.

Chromium Vanadium Benefits

  • Badmaev, Vladimir; Prakash, Subbalakshmi; Majeed, Muhammed (1999). 'Vanadium: A Review of its Potential Role in the Fight Against Diabetes'. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 5 (3): 273–291. doi:10.1089/acm.1999.5.273. PMID10381252. is old and also included in the biological role.
  • Ünsal, M. (1982). 'The accumulation and transfer of vanadium within the food chain'. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 13 (4): 139–141. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(82)90373-3. shows that there is a accumulation but most likely for seafood.
  • Spivey Fox, M. R. (1987). 'Assessment of Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium Status of Large Animals as Related to the Human Food Chain'. Journal of Animal Science. 65 (6): 1744–1752. doi:10.2527/jas1987.6561744x. PMID3327851. Even feeding sheep with mg quantities leads to an accumulation in the humans eating the meat.
  • Barceloux, Donald G.; Barceloux, Donald (1999). 'Vanadium'. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 37 (2): 265–278. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102425. PMID10382561. Inhalation is the only way to get it into an human in significant quantities.
  • Goc, Anna (2006). 'Biological activity of vanadium compounds'. Open Life Sciences. 1 (3): 314–332. doi:10.2478/s11535-006-0029-z. Mays and mights a whole text.
  • Harland, Barbara F.; Harden-Williams, Barbara A. (1994). 'Is vanadium of human nutritional importance yet?'. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 94 (8): 891–894. doi:10.1016/0002-8223(94)92371-X. PMID8046184. 'Although vanadium is thought to be essential for goats, new data may soon support its essentiality in human beings.' is what they want to tell us.

Chromium Vanadium Steel Uses

--Stone (talk) 20:48, 25 April 2020 (UTC)

Chromium Vanadium And Nickel Are Alloys

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